o Enveloped, helical, single-stranded, non-segmented, negative sense RNA virus
o Transmitted by respiratory droplets, it attaches and invades upper respiratory tract epithelium via viral hemagglutinin (HA) envelop proteins which leads to viremia.
§ Incubation: 2-3 week period§ Infects glandular tissue (parotid gland, testes)· Inflammatory infiltration and edema leads to painful enlargement of glands§ If the virus spreads to meninges, it can lead to aseptic meningitis.§ Virulence factors:· HA (binds sialic acid/cleaves sialic acid interaction)· M-protein (involved in envelope assembly)· Fusion (F) protein (causes infected cells to fuse)
o Common to all Paramyxoviridae, cause infected cells to form multinucleate giant cells.
o Worldwide. Outbreaks are seasonal with a winter/spring peak. Spread by direct contact, droplets, or fomites, and has a 2-3 week incubation.
o Symptomso Detection of virus in saliva, urine, CSF and serumo Serology (RT-PCR assays)
o Parotitis asymmetric orchitis (sometimes can effect both testes leading to sterility) pancreatitis, aseptic meningitis. Other symptoms include fever, headache, and malaise
· Aseptic meningitis is most commonly caused by coxsackievirus, echovirus and mumps virus
§ Supportive care including: analgesics, compression of parotids§ Patients gain lifelong immunity after one infection.
§ Live-attenuated rubella virus in MMR vaccine· MMR vaccine is the only live vaccine that can be given to HIV positive individuals.