Neisseria gonorrhea - MegaMicro

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Neisseria gonorrhea

Microbiology > Bacteriology > Gram-negative bacteria > Gram Negative Cocci > Neisseria
Gram Stain: gram-negative

Morphology and structure: non-capsulated diplococci

Physiology: aerobic, metabolizes only glucose

Virulence factors: Type IV Pili (has antigenic variation), Porins, and Opa mediate attachment and penetration into cell - then multiplication of the organism occurs intracellularly (specifically within PMNs)

Major associated diseases:
·         Gonorrhea
o   Epidemiology: Gonorrhea is the second most common STI
o   Symptoms: Thick white purulent discharge
§  Male: Urethritis (purulent urethral discharge) and dysuria
§  Female: vaginal discharge, dysuria and abdominal pain (asymptomatic carriage in female)
·        Pelvic Inflammatory Disease (PID), Ectopic pregnancy, sterility and Fitz-Hugh-Curtis Syndrome (infection of the liver capsule)
§  Neonates: are at risk for developing Ophthalmia neonatorum (a purulent ocular infection acquired at birth) which is acquired during the passing of the birth canal of an infected mother
§  Asymmetric Arthritis - most common form of inflammatory arthritis in young adults.
·         Two varieties:
1. Purulent arthritis
2. Tenosynovitis

Diagnosis: gram stain, culture, and PCR
Combined with testing for chlamydia - the test is sensitive, specific and rapid.

Treatment: Ceftriaxone via IM injection (and doxycycline for highly likely coinfection with Chlamydia)
                     Resistance is a growing concern.  Resistance has developed to oral agents (e.g. quinolones, which are no longer used for this reason).
Related concepts

Key Words
  • STD
  • STI
  • Sexually transmitted
  • Gonococci
  • Ophthalmia neonatorum

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